Sport Preparation : Technical Tactical Psychological

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Technical Preparation

Psychological Preparation sport trainingThe aim of technical preparation is to create and improve sports skills. Each sports skill has a given way of solving a motor task (contents of a sports skill) in accordance with the rules of a given sport, biomechanical rules and locomotive possibilities of the athlete which are referred to as technique. Specific individual adjustment of technique by an athlete is referred to as style.

Procedure of acquiring motor skills:

  1. Sports skills are created on the basis of information on external and internal environment of the athlete and their synthesis into a complex image about the situation (skill) to be solved.
  2. Creating such image is carried out on the basis of information acquired from senses (visual, audio, locomototive and positional) – perception.
  3. By repeating, perceived situations are gradually being fixed into corresponding perception patterns.
  4. Through afferent pathways, files with such information are transfered to CNS where they are further analysed in programming processes.
  5. It is here that the neural basis of relevant program is formed.
  6. The program is stored in the relevant memory.
  7. Selected solution program is implemented by relevant structures of neural impulses which evoke relevant activities within skeletal muscles.
  8. Gradually, structures of conditioned reflexes (movement stereotypes) in the form of motor patters are created.
  9. By repetition, these patterns are being formed into independent neuro-physiological units (perception patters, programs of motor solutions).
  10. To a certain extent, they are independent and can be combined into new units.

Stages of Technical Preparation

The process of learning motor skills is based on theoretical findings on motor learning.

Accomplishing the aim is conditioned by:

  • understanding the technique as a unity of its internal and external features
  • step-by-step procedure of its acquiring
  • stabilizing the technique
  • comprehensive conception (contents organization)
  • conscious activity of both the athlete and coach

The process of learning is not linear and even; it is a long-term process unlimited by time.

In practice, the following stages appear:

  • drill
  • improving
  • stabilization



  • learning the objectives of selected sports discipline
  • drilling the techical basics of relevant sports skills

This stage proceeds in the follow axis:

  • introduction (rules, feeling the water, ball etc.)
  • defining the task (couch’s input, athlete must identify him/herself with the image)
  • creating image
  • initial attempts (verifying the image under simplified conditions), repeating („repeating without repetitions“)



  • firming, improving and subsequent adjusting techniques in given specialization
  • gradual interconnection of technique and fitness requirements and physiological functions of the athlete
  • focussing the stage aims at further shaping the image

All information is integrated in a single unit of complex locomotive analyzer which is sport specific. Firming and improving is carried out through sophisticated repetitions of relevant exercises which lead towards automation. This stage continues to improve mainly kinematic (time and space) and dymanic (strength) parameters of motion structures. Techique should be gradually interconnected with its fitness basis and energy supply.

The main aim of this stage of technical preparation is final technique firming and stabilization.



  • firming and stabilization of sports skills complexes as units which are ready to be involved in programs for competitve activities of the athlete
  • mutual interconnection, combination and adjustments of these units to most demanding conditions under which sports activity is employed
  • attempts to firm and stabilize lead to another, more in-depth, uniting of technique, fitness, psyche and tactics into highly functional units

The substance of stabilizing technique in this stage lies in automation of relevant structures and actions of skills structures and their continuous adjusting to competition conditions.

Methods of Technical Preparation:

  • Methods: analytic, analytic-synthetic, concentration, dispersion.
  • Procedures: whole, from whole to part, from part to whole.

Tactical Preparation

It is necessary to differentiate between two terms:

  • strategy is understood as a pre-prepared plan of actions in a specific competition
  • the plan is defined by key strategy points (points in competition when the athlete makes decisions according to given strategy in so-called conflicting situations)
  • tactics further analyzes and shows possible solutions of individual competition situations (conflicting situations)
  • focuses on practical implementation of these situations within given plan (strategy)
  • tactics (individual, group, team, offensive, defensive)

Implementing tactical actions is carried out on the following axis:

  • perception and analysis (situation occurence – situation recognition – situation analysis)
  • mental solution (solution proposal – soluction selection)
  • movement solution (solution execution, feedback)

Tactics is being solved within competition situations which are characterized by conditions.

We can differentiate between two types of conditions:

  • fixed (sports ground, sports area, equipment etc.)
  • changing (referee, audience, route, ball bounce etc.)

Drilling Tactical Skills

Tactical skills are understood as certain procedures or models of competition situations solutions acquired by training.

Acquiring tactical skills presupposes influencing the athlete’s:

  • perception (space, rhythm, objects)
  • thinking and decision-making (analysis, synthesis, generalization, intuitive solutions – solutions outside the scope of perception)
  • knowledge (rules, organization of sports combat conduct, principles of tactical actions in specific situations, knowledge of strategy)
  • experience (memory, anticipation)

Principles of drilling tactical skills:

  • tactical skills are closely related to technique
  • there is a certain specific solution for each competition situation
  • theoretical background (algorithms, patterns) must be acquired before drilling itself
  • suggest solution to a situation when drilling and perhaps let athletes to discuss it
  • at first, teach without pushing, increase resistence and pressure (time, space, fatigue) after they handle individual parts
  • group skills (power play patterns) must be practised in an analytic way (in pairs or groups of three)
  • it is preferable to handle solving smaller number of situations with better quality
  • adjusting situation to expected competition conditions

Solving competition situations

When creating strategy plan, pay attention to the following:

  • competition aim,
  • competitor power
  • competitor strategy
  • own power
  • information on environment and conditions

Solving practical situations is based on the level of preparation during training and the extent of their indefiniteness (i.e. they cannot be prepared in advance)

We differentiate among:

  • Algorithmization (standard situations I.) the athlete chooses from several pre-peraded solutions (A, B, C options). Medium indefiniteness.
  • Patterns (standard situations II.) everyone knows what to do in a given situation, both me and other team-mates (e.g. direct free kick, ofensive combination, service in volleyball. Minimum indefiniteness.
  • Instant unprepared solution is improvised. Creativity is of very high importance. High indefiniteness.

Psychological Preparation

The aim of psychological preparation is to make use of psychological findings to increase efficiency of other sports training components and, within competition, fix efficiency at the level equal to acquired training level. In other words, it attempts to minimize effects of negative mental influences and at the same time positively influences the athletes’ psyche in order to reach high sports efficiency.

The approach of psychological preparation deals with:

  • model training
  • regulation of current mental states
  • regulation of interpersonal relationships
  • influencing the personality of an athlete

Model Training

The starting point of model training is theoretical knowledge of adaptation process from the point of view of psychology. Adaptation stimuli are represented by situational influences which negatively influence the athlete’s activity with their psychogenic effects.

What follows is that it is necessary to include competition situations “models” into training. Coach is required to be inventive, creative, like an actor or director, and able to convicingly influence his trainees who on the other hand must cooperate during model training by accepting the rules of the model. An example of model training can be repeated finish of set endings in volleyball under mental pressure when the score is unfavourable.

Regulation of Current Mental States

Current mental states can be divided into pre-start, competition and post-competition.

Pre-start states – they appear when the athlete realizes he/she participates in an important competition. These states gradually melt into in-competition states.

Post-competition states – the are evoked by subjective assessment of the course of competition and can last for several hours. The starting point for regulating such states are findings on activation level of athletes .

According to level of activation and its direction:

  • too high level of activation (start fever) – negative (aversive jitters), positive (eager jitters)
  • low level of activation (start apathy, indifference, apathy)

Post-competition states origin from success or failure. Failure causes depression, neurotic manifestations, resignation, hopelessness.

Means of regulations can be divided into for groups following their aim:

  • lowering activation
  • increasing activation
  • lowering negative experience of failure
  • removing psychological effects of fatigue

Particular means selection is a specific, to a certain extent individual matter.

Regulation of Interpersonal Relationships

In a sports team, there are two basic types of relationships among athletes: competition and cooperation. Both of these must be present in the team in an optimum degree. If competition overwhelms cooperation, there is rivalry in the team which affects cooperation (the trouble of several individualities). High level of cooperation without competition usually leads to general benevolence which results in missing motivation.

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