Aquatic Fitness Professional Manual - 6th Edition

Written with the expertise of more than 30 industry experts, Aquatic Fitness Professional Manual, Sixth Edition, is the most comprehensive and relied-upon resource for fitness professionals, personal trainers, therapists, and facility or program managers who specialize in water exercise. No longer just for seniors, aquatic fitness has emerged at the forefront of fitness trends as a challenging reduced-impact option for group exercise, small-group fitness, and personal training for all age groups. With new and expanded information, extensive updates, and the most current research and best practices, the sixth edition is sure to make waves by helping you design appropriate and engaging programs to bring the benefits of aquatic fitness to a wide range of individuals.

This all-in-one aquatic fitness reference is the definitive resource for those preparing for the AEA Aquatic Fitness Professional certification exam. Reorganized for easier study and exam preparation, the sixth edition contains essential foundational information such as the components of physical fitness, group fitness teaching techniques, and AEA Standards and Guidelines. Special learning features, including key concepts, chapter summaries, and review questions with answers, will help you learn and retain vital safety information, current aquatic-related research on exercise science, program design concepts, and updated nutrition and weight-management guidelines.

The Aquatic Fitness Professional Manual focuses on vertical exercise in both shallow and deep water. An improved, user-friendly layout includes an expanded glossary and index, added references, and new and revised charts. Italso includes a library of cardiorespiratory movements, toning exercises for major muscle groups, and stretching options to augment your current exercise routines. All movements and exercises are clearly described with full-color photos and detailed instructions. Plus, straightforward explanations of current exercise science concepts, applied exercise anatomy and physiology, and updated research on deep-water exercise will assist you in creating and leading safe and enjoyable exercise programs.

In the sixth edition you’ll also find new recommendations on warm-ups and cool-downs, shallow-water exercise, and aquatic fitness alternative training for better health. Expanded information on equipment and effective use of equipment keeps you and your clients focused on safety. Learn new cueing techniques and deck-teaching skills to enhance your group fitness leadership skills, and get the latest information to assist you in presenting a professional appearance and demeanor.

Dive into the new sixth edition of Aquatic Fitness Professional Manual today, and increase your knowledge, enhance your techniques, and bring the benefits of better fitness to your exercise community!

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Physical Fitness


Chapter Objectives

Key Chapter Concepts

Components of Physical Fitness

Cardiorespiratory Endurance

Muscular Strength

Muscular Endurance


Body Composition

Skill-Related Components of Fitness

Guidelines for Exercise

Mode of Training

Frequency of Training

Intensity of Training

Duration of Training


Neuromuscular Exercises

Types of Aerobic Conditioning

Benefits of Regular Exercise

Health Benefits of Regular Exercise

Psychological Benefits of Regular Exercise

Physical Activity Vs. Physical Fitness


Review Questions


Chapter 2 Exercise Anatomy


Chapter Objectives

Key Chapter Concepts

Structural Organization of the Human Body

Systems of the Human Body

Anatomical Reference Terms

The Skeletal System

Classification of Bones

Structural Composition of Bone

How Bones Grow

The Human Skeleton

The Muscular System

Characteristics of Muscle Tissue

Muscle Structure

Muscle Arrangements

Muscles of the Upper Torso and Extremities

Muscles of the Torso

Muscles of the Lower Torso and Extremities

The Nervous System

Organization of the Nervous System

The Primary Peripheral Nerves

The Respiratory System

Organization of the Respiratory System

Oxygen Flow in the Respiratory System

The Cardiovascular System

Organization of the Cardiovascular System

Blood Flow and Oxygenation

Cardiovascular Terms


Review Questions


Chapter 3 Movement Analysis


Chapter Objectives

Key Chapter Concepts

Anatomical Position

Movement Terms

Mathematical Definitions of Movement Terms

Planes and Axes


Types of Joints

Spheroidal or Ball and Socket

Hinge or Ginglymus

Ellipsoidal or Condyloid


Plane or Gliding

Pivot or Trochoid

Interaction Between the Skeletal and Muscular Systems

Movement Considerations

The Shoulder Girdle

The Shoulder Joint

The Elbow Joint

The Spine and Pelvic Girdle

The Hip Joint

The Knee Joint

Posture and Alignment


Review Questions


Chapter 4 Exercise Physiology


Chapter Objectives

Key Chapter Concepts

Physiological Principles


Progressive Overload





Muscle Balance

Energy Metabolism


Adenosine Triphosophate (ATP)

ATP-PCr System

Glycolytic System

Oxidative System

How These Systems Work Together to Supply the Body’s Energy Needs

Skeletal Muscle Tissue

Sliding Filament Theory

Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers

Types of Skeletal Muscle Contractions and Actions

Aerobic Exercise Responses


Review Questions


Chapter 5 The Aquatic Environment


Chapter Objectives

Key Chapter Concepts

Heat Dissipation in the Aquatic Environment

Water Temperature

Humidity and Air Temperature

Water Resistance

Pool Considerations

Pool Depth and Shape

Pool Bottom

Deck Surfaces

Pool Gutters and Ladders

Water Quality

Air Quality

Acoustical Factors

Electrical Shock

Thunder and Lightning


Review Questions


Chapter 6 The Physical Laws as Applied to the Aquatic Environment


Chapter Objectives

Key Chapter Concepts


Newton’s Law of Motion and Related Concepts

The Law of Inertia

Total Body Inertia

The Water’s Inertia

Limb Inertia



Frontal Resistance

Hand Positions—Shape Factors

Intensity Alternations With Speed

The Law of Acceleration—Changing Velocity Also Affects Effort

The Law of Action and Reaction



Hydrostatic Pressure

Surface Tension

Drag and Turbulence


Review Questions


Chapter 7 Aquatic Fitness Equipment


Chapter Objectives

Key Chapter Concepts

Primary Movement and Muscle Actions

Terminology and Definitions

Pure Movement, Movement on Land, and Submerged Movement

Types of Aquatic Equipment and Muscle Actions

Buoyant Equipment

Weighted Equipment

Drag Equipment

Rubberized Equipment

Flotation Equipment

Summary Table for Muscle Actions

Selecting and Purchasing Aquatic Fitness equipment


Review Questions


Chapter 8 Aquatic Exercise Programming and Leadership


Chapter Objectives

Key Chapter Concepts

Class Components

Warm-Up Component

Conditioning and Endurance Phase

Cardiorespiratory Endurance Training

Muscular Fitness Training

Muscular Flexibility and Range of Motion Training

Cool-Down Component

Program Format Variations

Circuit Training

Interval Training

Aquatic Dance Exercise

Deep-Water Fitness

Aquatic Step

Striding (Water Walk and Jog)

Muscular Conditioning

Aquatic Kickboxing

Ai Chi

Aquatic Pilates, Tai Chi, and Yoga

Pre- and Postnatal

Arthritis Programs

Aquatic Personal Training and Small-Group Fitness

Instructor Form and Alignment

The Art of Cueing

Verbal and Audible Cueing

Visual Cueing

Tactile Cueing

Additional Cueing Tips

Cueing Style

Smooth Transitions to Create Flow

Methods for Safe and Effective Instruction

Teaching From the Pool Deck

Conveying Movement Execution and Weight Transfer From Deck

Teaching From in the Pool

Teaching From on the Deck and in the Pool

Leading the Workout

Muscle Balance

High-Risk and Ineffective Movements

Very Fast Movements (Land Tempo and Double Time)

Extended Use of Arms Overhead

Very High-Impact Exercise

Promoting Muscle Imbalance

Prone Flutter Kicks

Wall-Hanging Exercises

Hip Flexion Versus Abdominal Conditioning

Hyperflexion of the Knee

Spinal Integrity

Proper Use of Equipment

Professional Behavior and Attire


Review Questions


Chapter 9 Shallow-Water Exercise


Chapter Objectives

Key Chapter Concepts

Common Choreography Definitions and Terms

Base Moves in Aquatic Choreography

Choreography Styles or Types

Linear Progression or Freestyle Choreography

Pyramid Choreography

Add-On Choreography

Pure Repetition or Patterned Choreography

Layer Technique

Impact Options for Aquatic Exercise

Impact Level Variations

Grounded and Anchored Movement

Propelled and Elevated Movement

Water-Specific Movements

Arm Patterns in Aquatic Exercise




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